Volume 7, Issue 3, May 2019, Page: 83-93
A Review on Virulence Factors of Escherichia Coli
Eshetu Shumi Gebisa, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Minda Asfaw Gerasu, College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Arsi University, Asela, Ethiopia
Diriba Taddese Leggese, College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Arsi University, Asela, Ethiopia
Received: Mar. 12, 2019;       Accepted: Apr. 17, 2019;       Published: Jul. 10, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.avs.20190703.13      View  96      Downloads  25
Abstract
Most Escherichia coli (E. coli strains are normal commensals found in the intestinal tract of both humans and animals, while others are pathogenic to animals and humans. Pathogenic E. coli distinguished from normal flora by their possession of virulence factors. Hence, the main objective of this review is to appraise different virulence factors associated with occurrence of pathogenic E. coli infections. Some pathogenic strains cause diarrhoeal disease and are categorized into specific groups based on virulence properties, mechanisms of pathogenicity, clinical syndromes and distinct O: H serogroups. In this review, the most important virulence factors of E. coli including acid resistance, different adhesion proteins like fimbriae, fibrillae, curli and outer membrane protein A, the use of type III secretion systems by the bacteria to subvert eukaryotic signaling pathways by injecting virulence proteins into the host cell cytoplasm, the alkaline phosphatase encoded by PhoA gene in E. coli, the repeatsin toxin pore-forming toxins, oligopeptide toxin of E. coli, heat-labile enterotoxins, Vero/Shiga toxins and different pathogenicity islands which encode a variety of different virulence factors like adhesins, toxins, invasins, protein secretion systems, iron uptake systems and others were critically conferred. Thus, this review paper call for pioneering research on different virulence factors of E. coli in order to apply a well-coordinated control interventions.
Keywords
Acid Resistance, Adhesion Proteins, Escherichia Coli, Pathogenecity Islands, Toxins, Virulence Factor
To cite this article
Eshetu Shumi Gebisa, Minda Asfaw Gerasu, Diriba Taddese Leggese, A Review on Virulence Factors of Escherichia Coli, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 83-93. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20190703.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Fernandez, T. F, E. coli O157: H7.. Vet. World, 2008. 1 (3): p. 83-87.
[2]
Kaper, J. B, Nataro, J. P, Mobley, H. L, Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. Microbiol, 2004 2: p. 123-140.
[3]
Mainil, J, Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of bacterial infections Colonisation of the mucosae; adherence factors and their interaction with host cells. Ann. Vet. Supp, 2005 12,: p. 5-14.
[4]
Lior, H, Classification of Escherichia coli. In: Gyles, C. L. (Ed.), Escherichia coli in Domestic Animals and Humans. CabInternational, Wallingford, Oxon, U. K, 1994.: p. 31-72.
[5]
Gyles, C. L, Prescott J. F, Songer, F, Airbrother, J. M, J. G. and Thoen, C, Escherichia coli. In: Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA, U. S. A, 2010. 12: p. 267-308.
[6]
Waddell, T. E, Ling wood, C. A, Gyles, C. L, Interaction of Verotoxin 2e with pig intestine. Infect. Immun, 1996. 64: p. 1714-1719.
[7]
Schreiber, W, Donnenberg, M. S. and Donnenberg, M. S, Escherichia coli Virulence Mechanisms of a Versatile Pathogen. Academic Press New York, NY,.. 2002 4: p. 417.
[8]
Khan, M. A. a. S, T. S, Mechanism of emerging diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli infections. Current Inf. Dis. Rep, 2002. 4: p. 112-117.
[9]
Sabate M, M. E, Perez T, Andreu A, Prats G, Pathogenicity island markers in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates. ClinMicrobiol Infect 2006. 12: p. 880-886.
[10]
Jores, J, Rumer, L, and Wieler, L, Impact of the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island on the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Int. J. Med. Microbio, 2004. 294: p. 103-113.
[11]
Ceponis. P, R, J. and Sherman, P, Epithelial cell signaling responses to entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. Memriasdo Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2005. 100: p. 199- 203.
[12]
Garmendia, J, Frankel, G. and Crepin, V, Enterpathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections: translocation, translocation, translocation. Infection and Immunity, 2005. 73: p. 2573-2585.
[13]
Lim, J, Sheng, H, Seo, K, Park, Y. and Hovde. C, Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 plasmid O157 deletion mutant andits survival and persistence in cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007. 73: p. 2037-2047.
[14]
LeBlanc, J, Implication of virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157: H7 pathogenesis. Clinical Microbiology Review, 2003. 29: p. 277-296.
[15]
Robins-Browne, The relentless evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Clinical Infecious Diseases, 2005. 41: p. 793-794.
[16]
Welinder-Olsson, C. a. K, B, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Scandanavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2005 37: p. 405-416.
[17]
Lu P, M. D, Chen Y, Guo Y, Chen GQ, Deng H, and Shi Y, L-glutamine provides acid resistance for Escherichia coli through enzymatic release of ammonia. Cell Res, 2013 23 (5): p. 635-44.
[18]
Foster, J. W, Escherichia coli acid resistance: tales of an amateur acidophile. Nat. Rev. Microbiol, 2004. 2 (11): p. 898-907.
[19]
Kuper C, J. K. C, mediated activation of the cadBA promoter in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol, 2005. 10 (1): p. 26-39.
[20]
Kanjee U, H. W, Mechanisms of acid resistance in Escherichia coli.. Annu RevMicrobiol, 2013. 67: p. 65-81.
[21]
Rasko, D. A, Rosovitz, M. J, Myers, G. S, Mongodin, E. F, Fricke, W. F, Gajer, P, Crabtree, J, Sebaihia, M, Thomson, N. R, Chaudhuri, R, Hender son, I. R, Sperandio, V, Ravel, J, The pan genome structure of Escherichia coli: comparative genomic analysis of E. coli commensal andpathogenicisolates. J. Bacteriol, 2008. 190: p. 6881-6893.
[22]
Clavijo, A. P, Bai, J. and Gomez-Duarte, O. G, The longus type IV pilus of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) mediate bacterial self-aggregation and protection fromantimicrobial agents. Microbiol. Pathog, 2010. 48: p. 230-238.
[23]
Saldana, Z, Sanchez, E, Xicohtencatl-Cortes, J, Puente, J. L, Giron, J. A, Surface Structures involved in plants to mata and leaf colonization by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Frontiers Microbiol, 2011. 2,: p. 1-9.
[24]
Nagy, B, Fekete, P. Z, EnterotoxigenicEscherichiacoli (ETEC) infarm animals. Vet. Res, 1999. 30 (259-284.).
[25]
Croxen, M. A. a. F, B. B, Molecular mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenicity. Nature Reviews Microbiol, 2010. 8 (1): p. 26-38.
[26]
Shin, S, G. Lu, M. Cai, and K. S. Kim, Escherichia coli outer membrane protein A adheres to human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Biochem. Biophys.. Res. Commun, 2005. 330: p. 1199-1204.
[27]
Cells. Infect. Immun, 2003. 71: p. 4985-4995.
[28]
Jeannin, P, B. Bottazzi, M. Sironi, A. Doni, M. Rusnati, M. Presta, V. Maina, G. Magistrelli, J. F. Haeuw, G. Hoeffel, N. Thieblemont, N. Corvaia, C. Garlanda, Y. Delneste, and A. Mantovani, Complexity and complementarity of outer membrane protein A recognition by cellular and humoralinnate immunity receptors. Immunity 2005. 22: p. 551-560.
[29]
Moll, H, Dendritic cells and host resistance to infection. cell. micro-biol, 2003. 5: p. 493-500.
[30]
Bolton, D. J, Vero cytotoxigenic (Shiga toxin producing) Escherichia coli: Virulence factors and pathogenicity in the farm to fork paradigm. Food borne Pathog. Dis, 2011. 8: (357-365.).
[31]
Hayashi T, M. K, Ohnishi M, Kurokawa K, Ishii K, Yokoyama K, Han CG, Ohtsubo E, Nakayama K, Murata T, Tanaka M, Tobe T, Iida T, Takami H, Honda T, Sasakawa C, Ogasawara N, Yasunaga T, Kuhara S, Shiba T, Hattori M, Shinagawa H:, Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12. DNA Res, 2001. 8: p. 11 - 22.
[32]
Tobe T, B. S, Taniguchi H, Abe H, Bailey CM, Fivian A, Younis R, Matthews S, Marches O, Frankel G, Hayashi T, Pallen MJ:, An extensiverepertoire of type III secretion effectors in Escherichia coli O157 and therole of lambdoid phages in their dissemination. Proc Natl AcadSci U S A, 2006. 103: p. 14941 - 14946.
[33]
Morova, J, R. Osicka, J. Masin and P. Sebo RTX cytotoxins recognize beta2 integrin receptors through N-linked oligosaccharides." P Natl AcadSci USA 2008. 105: p. 5355-5360.
[34]
Calamia. J. and Manoil, C, Lac permease of Escherichia coli: Topology and sequence elements promoting membrane insertion. Pro. of the Natio. Acad. Scie. Un. Stat. America, 1990. 87: p. 4937-4941.
[35]
Kim Jy, D. A, Chen Dj, Cremona gh, shuler ml, putnam d, delisamp, Engineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles with enhanced functionality. j. mol. bio, 2008 380: p. 51-66.
[36]
van der Goot, G. a. J. A. Y, Receptors of anthrax toxin and cell entry. Mol Aspects Med, 2009 30 (6): p. 406-412.
[37]
Cortajarena, A. L, F. M. Goñiand H. Ostolaza A receptor binding region in Escherichia coli haemolysin. J. Biol. Chem, 2003 278: (21): p. 19159-19163.
[38]
Valeva, A, I. Walev, H. Kemmer, S. Weis, I. Siegel, F. Boukhallouk, T. Wassenaar, T. Chavakis and S. Bhakdi Binding of Escherichia coli Hemolysin and Activation of the Target Cells is not Receptor-dependent.". J BiolChem, 2005 280: p. 36657-36663.
[39]
Sanchez-Magraner, L, A. R. Viguera, M. Garcia-Pacios, M. P. Garcillan, J. L. Arrondo, F. de la Cruz, F. M. Goniand H. Ostolaza The calcium-binding C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin is a major determinant in the surface-active properties of the protein. " J BiolChem 2007 282 (16): p. 11827-11835.
[40]
Herlax, V, S. Mate, O. Rimoldi and L. Bakas Relevance of fatty acid covalently bound to Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin and membrane microdomains in the oligomerization process. " J Biol Chem 2009. 284 (37): p. 199-210.
[41]
Weintraub, A, Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: epidemiology, virulence and detection. J. Med. Microbiol, 2007 56: p. 4-8.
[42]
Flores, J. a. O, P. C, Entero aggregative Escherichia coli infection. Curr. Opin. Gastro Enterol, 2009. 25: p. 8-11.
[43]
Radostits, O, Gay, C. C, Hinchcliff, K, Constable, P. D, Veterinary Medicine A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs. 2007.
[44]
Scheutz, F, Teel, L. D, Beutin, L, Piérard, D, Buvens, G, Karch, H, Mellmann, A, Caprioli, A, Tozzoli, R, Morabito, S, Strockbine, N. A, Melton-Celsa, A. R, Sanchez, M, Persson, S, O’Brien, A. D, Multicenter evaluation of a sequence based protocol for subtyping Shiga toxins and standardizing Stx nomenclature. J. Clin. Microbiol, 2012 50, (2951-2963.).
[45]
Johannes, L, R omer, W, Shigatoxins from cell biology to Biomedical applications. Nat. Rev. Microbiol, 2010). 8: p. 105-116.
[46]
Hoey, D. E, Sharp, L, Currie, C, Lingwood, C. A, Gally, D. L, Smith, D. G, Verotoxin1 binding to intestinal crypt epithelial cells results in localization to lysosomes and abrogation of toxicity. cell. microbiol, 2003. 5: p. 85-97.
[47]
Hacker J, K. J, Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu Rev Microbiol, 2000. 54: p. 641-679.
Browse journals by subject