Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2018, Page: 74-79
Effects of a Watermelon Extract Beverage on Canine Lipid Metabolism and Urine Crystals
Sayaka Miyai, Yamazaki University of Animal Health Technology, Hachioji, Japan
Toshiharu Hashizume, Hagihara Farm Production Institute, Tawaramoto, Japan
Toshio Okazaki, Yamazaki University of Animal Health Technology, Hachioji, Japan
Received: Sep. 26, 2018;       Accepted: Oct. 22, 2018;       Published: Nov. 15, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.avs.20180605.12      View  130      Downloads  27
Abstract
Previous report showed that watermelon consumption has an anti-obesity effects in rats. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects on body weight, body fat percentage, serum biochemical data, serum adipokine concentrations (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin), urine specific gravity and sediments when 12 dogs were given watermelon extract beverage instead of water for 3 months. Those data were all assessed before the study period and again at 1.5 and 3 months. Although there were no remarkable changes in most of these parameters, a significant decrease in serum leptin concentrations at 1.5 and 3 months. Calcium oxalate and struvite crystals were observed in the urinary sediment in five dogs; although their urine specific gravities remained >1.040 throughout, the number of urinary crystals had decreased by the end of the 3-month period. Morphological components were not found in the urinary sediment of the other five dogs; their urine specific gravities were also >1.040 before the study period and at 1.5 months, but these had decreased to <1.040 at 3 months. These results suggested that drinking the watermelon extract beverage reduced serum leptin levels and inhibited the formation of urine crystals such as calcium oxalate and struvite crystals in dogs.
Keywords
Watermelon, Leptin, Anti-obesity, Anti-urolithiasis
To cite this article
Sayaka Miyai, Toshiharu Hashizume, Toshio Okazaki, Effects of a Watermelon Extract Beverage on Canine Lipid Metabolism and Urine Crystals, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 5, 2018, pp. 74-79. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20180605.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Li Q, Lauber CL, Czarnecki-Maulden G, Pan Y and Hannah SS, 2017. Effects of the dietary protein and carbohydrate ratio on gut microbiomes in dogs of different body conditions. MBio. Vol. 8, No. 1, pii: e01703–e01716, doi: 10.1128/mBio.01703-16.
[2]
Baric Rafaj R, Kules J, Marinculic A, Tvarijonaviciute A, Ceron J, Mihaljevic Z, Tumpa A and Mrljak V, 2017. Plasma markers of inflammation and hemostatic and endothelial activity in naturally overweight and obese dogs. BMC Vet Res. Vol. 13, No. 13, doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0929-8.
[3]
Radakovich LB, Truelove MP, Pannone SC, Olver CS and Santangelo KS, 2017. Clinically healthy overweight and obese dogs differ from lean controls in select CBC and serum biochemistry values. Vet Clin Pathol. Vol. 46, No. 2, 221–226, doi: 10.1111/vcp.12468.
[4]
Xu Y, Zhang M, Wu T, Dai S, Xu J and Zhou Z, 2015. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet. Food Funct. Vol. 6, No. 1, pp: 297–304, doi: 10.1039/c4fo00970c.
[5]
Lee EH, Son WC, Lee SE and Kim BH, 2013. Anti-obesity effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid with or without isoflavones on high-fat diet induced obese mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. Vol. 77, No. 8, pp: 1694–1702, doi:10.1271/bbb.130253.
[6]
Jo YH, Choi KM, Liu Q, Kim SB, Ji HJ, Kim M, Shin SK, Do SG, Shin E, Jung G, Yoo HS, Hwang BY and Lee MK, 2015. Anti-obesity effect of 6, 8-diprenylgenistein, an isoflavonoid of cudrania tricuspidata fruits in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Nutrients. Vol. 7, No. 12, 10480–10490, doi: 10.3390/nu7125544.
[7]
Shanely RA, Nieman DC, Perkins-Veazie P, Henson DA, Meaney MP, Knab AM and Cialdell-Kam L, 2016. Comparison of watermelon and carbohydrate beverage on exercise-induced alterations in systemic inflammation, immune dysfunction, and plasma antioxidant capacity. Nutrients. Vol. 8, No. 8, pii: E518, doi: 10.3390/nu8080518.
[8]
Tamburini E, Costa S, Rugiero I, Pedrini P and Marchetti MG, 2017. Quantification of lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids in intact red-flesh watermelon (citrullus lanatus) using on-line near-infrared spectroscopy. Sensors (Basel). Vol. 17, No. 4, pii: E746, doi: 10.3390/s17040746.
[9]
Okazaki T, Hashizume T , Suzuki M and Ogawa Z, 2014. Anti-obesity effects of watermelon extract on rats fed high-fat diet. Journal of Pet Animal Nutrition. Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 13–18, doi: https://doi.org/10.11266/jpan.17.13.
[10]
Hong MY, Hartig N, Kaufman K, Hooshmand S, Figueroa A and Kern M, 2015. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet. Nutr Res. Vol. 35, No. 3, pp: 251–258, doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.12.005.
[11]
Kim HS, Kang JH and Jeung EB, 2016. Yang MP. Serum concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. J Vet Intern Med. Vol. 30, No. 5, pp: 1589–1600. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14570.
[12]
Ismail MM, Abdel Hamid TA, Ibrahim AA and Marzouk H, 2017. Serum adipokines and vitamin D levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arch Med Sci. Vol. 13, No.4, pp: 738–744. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2016.60680.
[13]
Lee S, Kweon OK and Kim WH, 2017. Increased Leptin and Leptin Receptor Expression in Dogs With Gallbladder Mucocele. J Vet Intern Med. Vol. 31, No.1, pp: 36–42. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14612.
[14]
Park HJ, Lee SE, Oh JH, Seo KWand Song KH, 2014. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs. BMC Vet Res. Vol. 13, No. 10, pii: 113. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-113.
[15]
Ren Y, Wan T, Zuo Z, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Deng J, Hu Y, Yu S, Shen L, Ma X, Wang Y and Ren Z, 2017. Resistin increases the expression of NOD2 in mouse monocytes. Exp and Ther Med. No. 13, Vol. 5, pp: 2523–2528. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4288.
[16]
Calabro S, Tudisco R, Bianchi S, Grossi M, De Bonis A and Isabella Cutrignelli M, 2011. Management of struvite uroliths in dogs. Br Journal Nutr. Vol. 106, No. 1, pp: 191-193. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511000882.
[17]
Bartges JW and Callens AJ, 2015. Urolithiasis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. Vol. 45, No. 4, pp: 747–768. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2015.03.001.
[18]
Yadav M, Gulkari VD and Wanjari MM, 2016. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extracts prevent formation of renal calculi in lithiatic rats. Anc Sci Life. Vol. 36, No. 2, pp: 90–97. doi: 10.4103/asl. ASL_90_16.
[19]
Das P, Kumar K, Nambiraj A, Rajan R, Awasthi R, Dua K and M H, 2017. Potential therapeutic activity of Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis Hardow (Mabb) flower extract and its biofabricated silver nanoparticles against chemically induced urolithiasis in male Wistar rats. Int J Biol Macromol. Vol. 103, pp: 621–629. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.096.
[20]
Velu V, Das M, Raj N AN, Dua K and Malipeddi H, 2017. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo anti-urolithiatic activity of silver nanoparticles containing aqueous leaf extract of Tragia involucrata. Drug Deliv and Transl Res. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp: 439–449. doi: 10.1007/s13346-017-0363-x.
[21]
Kudo M, Yoshitomi H, Momoo M, Suguro S, Yamagishi Y and Gao M, 2017. Evaluation of the effects and mechanism of L-Citrulline on anti- obesity by appetite suppression in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and high-fat diet fed SD rats. Biol Pharm Bull. Vol. 40, No. 4, pp: 524–530. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b16-01002.
Browse journals by subject